## MATHEMATICS

###### PRESCHOOL:

Preschoolers are introduced to basic Mathematics. Students will gain knowledge of Algebra by completing sequential patterns. Students will practice Data Analysis by sorting objects by color, shape, and size and by completing picture graphs that often correspond to their literature. Students will learn to recognize numbers and practice one-to-one correspondence using manipulatives. Students will measure length and weight using unconventional and standard units. Students will practice all Mathematical concepts using fun, interactive manipulatives.

###### JUNIOR KINDERGARTEN:

Students begin to sort, classify, and order objects while recognizing an assortment of patterns using attributes.  Data is collected and represented on a variety of graphs and charts.  Students explore number sense by the one-to-one correspondence of objects in a series, recognition of greater than, less than, or equal to, and representation of a given number of objects with a written numeral.  In geometry, students explore a variety of two and three dimensional shapes while learning the difference between flat and solid shapes.  Students also begin to explore measurement based upon the attributes of length, height, and weight, etc.  Students are introduced to skip counting by fives and tens to 100.  Junior kindergarten also provides an opportunity to explore the characteristics and value of a penny, nickel, dime, and quarter.

###### KINDERGARTEN:

The kindergarten math curriculum allows students to work on daily routines such as calendar concepts, number sense, and counting. Students develop number sense through the use of manipulatives and a variety of activities, drawings, and strategies. By the end of kindergarten, students will have mastered counting beyond 130, skip counting by twos, fives, and tens, and place value in the ones, tens, and hundreds. Students begin to form addition and subtraction equations, fact families, and number comparisons using greater than, less than, and equal to. Kindergarten students also learn the attributes of two and three dimensional shapes and begin the basic understanding of counting and exchanging coins. Making applications of real word scenarios are learned through measurement, graphing data, and time using digital and analog clocks. Teacher modeling, hands-on activities, and independent practice allows students to leave kindergarten with a fundamental knowledge and love for math.

First graders investigate various forms of data collection such as counting, tallying, surveys, and observations. Students begin to interpret information from picture or object graphs using vocabulary words such as more than, fewer, greater than, less than, and equal to.  They will begin to recognize, observe, and extend simple numeric patterns and shapes and analyze repeating patterns. First graders explore telling time to the hour and half-hour using analog and digital clocks, locate given dates on a calendar, and determine past and future dates. An emphasis is placed on developing a strong number sense and algebraic thinking. First graders are introduced to number patterns such as counting by ones, twos, fives, and tens; comparing numbers; and investigating place value.  In geometry, students identify and sort both plane and 3-dimensional figures by number of sides, vertices, and right angles. They identify shapes within the environment. First graders investigate and write fractions such as halves, thirds, fourths, and wholes, compare fractions using models, and partition circles and rectangles into equal shares.

Students will create and solve 1-step story problems using addition and subtraction facts. They also begin to develop strategies such as using objects, drawings, equations, and key words to solve word problems. First graders identify pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters and determine the value of a collection of coins whose total value is less than one dollar.  The children use both standard and nonstandard units to measure and compare length, weight/mass, and volume. They are introduced to both U.S. Customary and Metric units of measure. First graders work to recall basic addition and subtraction facts. They also apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract.

Second grade math focuses on patterns, data collection and organization.  Plots and graphs are constructed to represent data. Numeric operations are also taught throughout the year.  Estimating sums/differences, counting, ordinal positions, addition, subtraction, regrouping, time, money, measurement, calendar, and place value.  Algebraic thinking, involving solving addition/subtraction problems, using tables & charts, creating story problems, exploring unknown quantities, and understanding fractions is also taught. Geometry (planes & solid geometric figures), measurement, rounding, probability, and multiplication are focused learning as well.

Students in third grade explore mathematical concepts such as data, statistics, and algebraic thinking. Students learn to utilize the commutative and  associative properties of mathematics. Students learn to identify patterns and growth in time, money, temperature, and measurement. Third grade students broaden their understanding of fractions and fractional operations. Third grade continues to build on the principles of geometry, expanding their use of measurement to include shapes and figures. Students also learn to identify lines, line segments, rays, and angles. Students also expand their number sense to include the use of decimals.

In math, students focus on creating and interpreting graphs. After gathering information, they learn to find mean, median, and mode while discovering probability and patterns in data. Fourth graders will create and solve multi-step addition & subtraction problems. They will begin to recognize the meaning of simple algebraic equations and place value to the hundred millions. While solidifying their understanding of multiplication, students will learn common multiples and factors of numbers 0-100. These students will learn to divide larger numbers. Measurement skills will include: weight, mass and liquid volumes.  Fourth grade geometry concepts will incorporate: points, lines, line segments, rays, angles and symmetry, and congruency plane figures. They will explore a variety of 2-D and 3-D shapes. Finally, the students will begin understanding fractions with unlike denominators, order of  operations, multiplying fractions, and decimals.

Fifth grade mathematics instruction is taught with a variety of modaliites in mind. Concepts are taught using a problem solving approach and a spiral yearlong review. Students practice and review basic skills using classroom games  throughout the year. Students learn about concepts such as,  patterns & data, algebraic thinking, prime & composite numbers & order of operations, multiplication, division, understanding decimals & decimal operations. Real world projects are used as often as possible to make learning more meaningful as students explore the concepts of measurement as they explore perimeter, area & volume. Students learn about  geometry concepts such as classifying polygons, and angles. Students manipulate classroom created data as they explore probability & statistics concepts. Students also create data to help them explore their understanding of fractions. Students also work to apply their knowledge and problem solve as we explore adding, subtracting, multiplying & dividing fractions. Students work to apply fraction knowledge to understanding ratios, examining the relationships between fractions, decimals & percents, coordinate plane, and balancing  equations.

###### MIDDLE SCHOOL:

The pervading goal throughout the Middle School math program is the development of logical reasoning skills, problem solving skills and the ability to communicate one’s ideas. Sixth grade math is more concrete, emphasizing computational mathematics, geometry, and probability/statistics. Sixth grade students will be placed in Mathematical Foundations or Pre-Algebra.

Mathematical Foundations Concepts: Statistics/data, probability, algebraic thinking, rates/ratios, numeric operations, measurement, geometric properties, geometric relationships, operations with integers, algebraic expressions and equations, functions, and algebraic inequalities.

Pre-Algebra Concepts: Statistics/data, probability, operations with integers, variables, linear expressions, linear equations, inequalities, rational/irrational numbers, ratios/rates, application of percents, transformations, coordinate graphing, geometric shapes, and geometric properties.

Algebra I Concepts: Algebraic expressions, multi-step equations, linear and quadratic equations, inequalities, systems of equations and inequalities, functions, properties, operations with polynomials, lines and curves of best fit, probability, and statistics​

Geometry Concepts: Distance in one and two dimensions, parallel lines and transversals, triangle congruence, laws of logic, proofs, transformations, similarity and proportions, circles, parallelograms, other polygons, angle relationships in various polygons, perimeter, area, surface area, volume, and basic trigonometry.